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Last update: May 2024

[Main COI references: COI Update 2024, 4., pp. 4-7; Annex 1, pp. 16-18; Country Focus 2023, p. 14; 2.3., pp. 29-40; Security 2022, 3.3., pp. 71-78; COI Update 2022, 3., p. 12].

Information concerning this indicator is mostly based on UCDP reporting the period from 1 July 2022 to 12 January 2024, unless differently specified.

UCDP provides information on both the number of civilian deaths (fatalities).The UCDP data set distinguishes ‘unclear’ cases from ‘clear’ cases. The ’unclear’ category contains conflicts that likely fulfil the definition of a conflict used by UCDP, but where information on one criterion is missing. For the purposes of assessing the level of indiscriminate violence under Article 15(c) QD, civilian deaths (fatalities) from both 'clear' and 'unclear’ events are taken into account. For more information on UCDP data, see Country Focus 2023, p. 14, available at….

In the reference period 1 July 2022 - 12 January 2024, UCDP recorded 713 civilian deaths, of these, 199 civilian deaths were recorded in Kabul, 61 in Herat, 38 in Nangarhar, 31 in Baghlan, followed by Samangan, Kandahar, Balkh and Takhar. Battles between the Taliban and the NRF or AFF have mainly taken place in these provinces. Over half of the fatalities in these provinces were recorded during the months July-October 2022.

According to UCDP data, in the period between August and November 2022, 144 civilian deaths (which represents 23 % of all civilian deaths during that reference period) were the result of four attacks against religious places and Shia targets in Kabul, Herat and Samangan.

In Kabul province in the period 1 July 2022 - 12 January 2024, UCDP recorded in total 199 civilian deaths resulting from 245 events. The majority of the civilian deaths resulting from ’attacks against civilians’ incidents were attributed to ISKP, followed by attacks against civilians carried out by unknown actors, and the de facto government. Furthermore in Kabul, 30 civilian deaths were reported in 32 events in which the de facto government on one side and ISKP on the other were involved. According to ACLED data, Kabul was the province with most events coded as ‘explosions/remote violence’. In the reference period 1 July 2022 and 12 January 2024, ACLED recorded a total of 393 combatant and non-combatant fatalities.

Since the Taliban takeover and until September 2023, UNAMA recorded 3 774 civilian casualties, of which 1 095 deaths. More than one third of these casualties are caused by IED attacks against places of worship, many claimed by ISKP. IEDs targeting the Taliban have also killed (63) and injured (363) civilians since the takeover.

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) recorded 541 incidents involving landmines and explosive remnants in January-June 2022. A total of 1 092 people were killed or injured in these incidents, of which 640 were children. Cases were recorded all over the country, but mainly in southern and eastern Afghanistan.