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Actors of persecution or serious harm

This chapter relates in particular to Article 6 QD. It focuses on the main actors in the respective country of origin and their areas of presence and control. It also provides a brief overview of human rights violations they have reportedly committed.

Actors of persecution are a key element in the status determination process. Persecution or serious harm must always take the form of conduct on the part of a specific actor in accordance with Article 6 QD.

This chapter may be relevant when examining the risk for the applicant in relation to the reach of the actor of persecution or serious harm. Similarly, if internal protection alternative (IPA) is considered in the individual case, the presence and reach of the actor of persecution in the respective area would be of particular importance in the assessment of its safety.

In addition, the chapter may provide an indication as to the motivation of the respective actor when committing persecutory acts. This could be useful for the analysis with regard to the potential nexus to a reason for persecution.

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For general guidance on ‘Actors of persecution or serious harm’, see the respective section of the EUAA Practical guide: Qualification for international protection, p. 35.

See also ‘Initial indications for considering or not considering IPA’, p. 14, and ‘Assessment of the IPA criteria’, p. 18, in the EUAA Practical guide on the internal protection alternative.