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The analysis in this sub-section is based on the low threshold of the Diakité judgment.

The assessment looks into whether there are confrontations between two or more armed groups taking place.

While reference to reputable sources qualifying the conflicts in accordance with international humanitarian law may be made, it is with the understanding that most criteria for such qualification are not required to be met under Article 15(c) QD. A source that is often used in this regard, either directly or through its use in the respective COI documents, is the Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts project (RULAC) of the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights online portal.

Similarly, while their qualification according to international humanitarian law is sometimes mentioned, it is not necessary, for the purposes of Article 15(c) QD analysis, to determine whether the armed conflict(s) taking place are international or non-international (internal) in character.

The country guidance approach takes into account that an armed conflict may be limited to certain parts of the territory of a country. However, the assessment in this sub-section usually refrains from making a determination of the scope of armed conflicts in clear geographical terms. Instead, areas where an armed conflict may not be taking place or where the intensity of indiscriminate violence would be particularly low if any, would fall under the same conclusion that ‘in general, there is no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD’.