Article 7 QD stipulates that protection can be provided by:
The State: It can be concluded that in some parts of the country, the capacity of the Nigerian State to provide effective protection is limited, in particular in the states of Borno, Adamawa, Yobe, Plateau, Benue, Nasarawa, Taraba, and Zamfara. The Nigerian State and its institutions may also prove inaccessible or ineffective in certain situations, such as for women and children victims of violence, for the prevention of FGM/C, forced and child marriage, for victims of trafficking, etc. Moreover, the Nigerian state may be an actor of persecution, for example in cases of LGBT persons or when implementing the Sharia in cases of adultery in the North.
Age, gender, area of origin and socio-economic status are among the factors that affect the accessibility of protection for the individual.
Parties or organisations, including international organisations, controlling the State or a substantial part of the territory of the State: No such actors are identified in Nigeria.
In case protection needs have been established in the home area, and if it is established that there is no actor who can provide protection in the meaning of Article 7 QD, the examination may continue with consideration of the applicability of internal protection alternative (IPA).