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Last updated: February 2019

Based on available COI, the general situation with regard to the elements mentioned above is assessed as follows:

Food security: In general, except for the North East, there are no significant food shortages in Nigeria. The main variable in access to food are the means of subsistence available to the applicant, which in the case of IDPs can be a particular concern. The Lagos state government is reportedly dedicated to improving food security, in order to improve employment and reduce poverty [Key socio-economic indicators, 2.5].

Housing and shelter: The rapid growth of the urban population outpaces the necessary infrastructure, services and economy. This results in urban slums, poverty, housing shortage, inadequate governmental services, growing social and economic inequalities, street violence and crime. Apart from the residential areas, which are oriented towards the middle class, informal settlements in the core areas of cities are the oldest and largest settlements, with markets and other commercial services. The living conditions in slums, as studied for Lagos, are dire [Key socio-economic indicators, 2.6.1, 2.6.2].

Hygiene: Health and sanitation problems arise from the rapid urbanisation due to a lack of electricity, sewage, potable water, and adequate housing. Many urban dwellers do not have access to potable water, because of lack of maintenance, underinvestment, lack of governmental subsidies to ensure access to water by the poor. It is reported that sanitation in urban areas is improving [Key socio-economic indicators, 2.6.2].

Basic healthcare: Generally, relevant reports show shortage and uneven distribution of medical facilities and staff across Nigeria, limited access to treatment because of structural deficiencies (including high medical cost), limited access to medication (over 60 % of the Nigerian population lacks access to medication) [Key socio-economic indicators, 2.8.2, 2.8.3].

Means of basic subsistence: Given the current economic and security situation, there are high rates of unemployment and underemployment, especially for the youth, the women and the IDPs, and this trend has worsened in recent years. At the same time, although there is still a large workforce in the country, their incomes are insufficient as a strong cushion against poverty. According to a 2017 World Bank report, in 2013 86 million Nigerians lived in extreme poverty. There is a significant, visible difference between the northern and southern regions of Nigeria (poorer north and richer south), as well as between different states, while the Middle Belt is characterised as having the highest levels of inequality. Female-headed households and IDPs are more exposed to poverty and dire living conditions [Key socio-economic indicators, 2.3, 2.4].

In order to establish the reasonableness of IPA, the analysis should take into account the individual circumstances of the applicant, such as socio-economic background, education, profession, etc. Support by state authorities, NGOs and social networks, including but not limited to the family (for example, it could also include colleagues, friends) could also be an important consideration, especially with regard to certain profiles.