Case law referenced in the common analysis

Actors of persecution or serious harm

 CJEU, Mohamed M’Bodj v État belge, C-542/13, judgment of 18 December 2014

(M’Bodj)

Reasons for persecution - religion

 CJEU, Bundesrepublik Deutschland v Y and Z, Joined Cases C-71/11 and C-99/11, judgment of 5 September 2012

(Y and Z)

Reasons for persecution – membership of a particular social group

 CJEU, Minister voor Immigratie en Asiel v X and Y and Z v Minister voor Immigratie en Asiel, Joined Cases C-199/12 to C-201/12 judgment of 7 November 2013

(X, Y and Z)

Article 15(b) QD

 CJEU, MP v Secretary of State for the Home Department, C-353/16, judgment of 24 April 2018

(MP)

 CJEU, M’Bodj

Article 15(c) QD

 CJEU, CF and DN v Bundesrepublik Deutschland, C-901/19, judgment of 10 June 2021

(CF and DN)

 CJEU, Aboubacar Diakité v Commissaire général aux réfugiés et aux apatrides, C-285/12, judgment of 30 January 2014

(Diakité)

 CJEU, Elgafaji v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, C-465/07, judgment of 17 February 2009

(Elgafaji)

 ECtHR, Sufi and Elmi v United Kingdom, Applications nos. 8319/07 and 11449/07, judgment of 28 June 2011

(Sufi and Elmi)

Internal protection alternative

 CJEU, X, Y and Z

 CJEU, Y and Z

 CJEU, Abdulla and Others v Bundesrepublik Deutschland, joined cases C-175/08, C-176/08, C-178/08 and C-179/08, judgment of 2 March 2010

(Abdulla)

 ECtHR, A.A.M. v Sweden, Application no. 68519/10, judgment of 3 April 2014

(A.A.M v Sweden)

 ECtHR, Salah Sheekh v the Netherlands, Application no. 1948/04, judgment of 11 January 2007

(Salah Sheekh)

 Sufi and Elmi

Exclusion

 CJEU, Shajin Ahmed v Bevándorlási és Menekültügyi Hivatal, C-369/17, judgment of 13 September 2018

(Ahmed)

 CJEU, Commissaire général aux réfugiés et aux apatrides v Mostafa Lounani, C-573/14, judgment of 31 January 2017

(Lounani)

 CJEU, Bundesrepublik Deutschland v B and D, joined cases C-57/09 and C-101/09, judgment of 9 November 2010

(B and D)

 ICC, The Prosecutor v Germain Katanga, ICC-01/04-01/07, judgment of 7 March 2014

(Katanga)

 ICTY (Appeals Chamber), Prosecutor v Kunarac et al., IT-96-23 and IT-96-23/1-A, judgment of 12 June 2002

 ICTY, Prosecutor v Dusko Tadic aka “Dule” (Opinion and Judgment), IT-94-1-T, judgment of 7 May 1997

 ICTR, The Prosecutor v Jean-Paul Akayesu (Trial Judgment), ICTR-96-4-T, judgment of 2 September 1998

 

For additional information on relevant case law see:

EASO Practical guides

Available at: https://www.easo.europa.eu/practical-tools

 EASO Practical Guide: Qualification for international protection
 EASO Practical Guide: Exclusion
 EASO Guidance on membership of a particular social group
 EASO Practical guide on the application of the internal protection alternative

Judicial analyses

Available at: https://www.easo.europa.eu/courts-and-tribunals  

 Judicial analysis ‘Qualification for International Protection (Directive 2011/95/EU)’
 Judicial analysis ‘Article 15(c) Qualification Directive (2011/95/EU)’
 Judicial analysis ‘Exclusion: Articles 12 and 17 Qualification Directive (2011/95/EU)’