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Last updated: June 2019

Human rights violations, which could amount to persecution or serious harm, are also committed by other non-State actors, such as family members or criminal groups.

Some examples include domestic violence by family members, violence against LGBTIQ individuals, FGM/C, mostly practiced in some regions of the KRG, etc. See the profiles of LGBTIQ persons, Women, etc.

A range of armed actors are involved in criminality in Iraq and the actor may not always be identifiable. Often, it may involve militias or criminal gangs. According to available information, organised and street-level crime appear to have increased and 'kidnapping for political and monetary gain' was common in Iraq. It is also reported that criminal groups can operate with relative impunity given the pervasive corruption in institutions at all levels [Actors of protection,; Targeting, 3.1.2, Security situation 2019, 1.3.6].