Last update: February 2023
There are multiple overlapping non-international (internal) and international armed conflicts taking place in Syria:
- Syria continued to be involved in an international armed conflict with the US-led coalition against ISIL, due to the coalition’s military intervention in Syria without the consent of the GoS.
- Syria continued to be involved in an international armed conflict with Türkiye, who has carried out military operations against GoS, ISIL and Kurdish armed groups in Syria, and controls parts of northern Syria with the help of anti-GoS armed groups.
- Syria continued to be involved in an international armed conflict with Israel as well, who has been conducting air strikes on Iranian targets in Syria without the consent of the GoS, and controls parts of Syria.
- Syria continued to be involved in several non-international armed conflicts with various anti-GoS armed groups, most notably HTS, the SNA, the SDF and ISIL.
- Non-international armed conflicts on Syrian territory further included ongoing infighting between various non-State armed groups.
- Türkiye is engaged in a non-international armed conflict in Syria with Kurdish forces and with ISIL.
- Israel is engaged in a non-international armed conflict in Syria with the Hezbollah.
[Security 2022, 1.1, p. 17]
The section indiscriminate violence in Syria provides further analysis and guidance with regard to the armed conflicts taking place on the territory of Syria at governorate level.