- Introduction to the situation in Syria
- The implications of leaving Syria
- Actors of persecution or serious harm
- Refugee status
- Subsidiary protection
- Actors of protection
- Internal protection alternative
- Common analysis
- 1. Introduction to the situation in Syria
- 2. The implications of leaving Syria
- 3. Actors of persecution or serious harm
4. Refugee status
- General remarks
- 4.1. Persons perceived to be opposing the government
- 4.2. Persons who evaded or deserted military service
- 4.3. Persons with perceived links to ISIL
- 4.4. Members of and persons perceived to be collaborating with the SDF and YPG
- 4.5. Persons perceived to be opposing the SDF/YPG
- 4.6. Persons fearing forced or child recruitment by Kurdish forces
- 4.7. Persons associated with the Government of Syria
- 4.8. Journalists, other media professionals and human rights activists
- 4.9. Doctors, other medical personnel and civil defence volunteers
- 4.10. Ethno-religious groups
- 4.11. Women and girls
- 4.12. Children
- 4.13. LGBTIQ persons
5. Subsidiary protection
- 5.1. Article 15(a) QD: death penalty or execution
- 5.2. Article 15(b) QD: torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
5.3. Article 15(c) QD: indiscriminate violence in situations of armed conflict
- 5.3.1. Preliminary remarks
- 5.3.2. Armed conflict (international or internal)
- 5.3.3. Qualification of a person as a ‘civilian’
- 5.3.4. Indiscriminate violence: general approach
- 5.3.5. Serious and individual threat
- 5.3.6. Qualification of the harm as ‘threat to (a civilian’s) life or person'
- 5.3.7. Nexus/’by reason of’
- 6. Actors of protection
- 7. Internal protection alternative
- 8.1. Relevant circumstances
- 8.2. Guidance with regard to Syria
- Annex I. Abbreviations and glossary
- Annex II. Country of origin information references
Last update: February 2023
There are multiple overlapping non-international (internal) and international armed conflicts taking place in Syria:
- Syria continued to be involved in an international armed conflict with the US-led coalition against ISIL, due to the coalition’s military intervention in Syria without the consent of the GoS.
- Syria continued to be involved in an international armed conflict with Türkiye, who has carried out military operations against GoS, ISIL and Kurdish armed groups in Syria, and controls parts of northern Syria with the help of anti-GoS armed groups.
- Syria continued to be involved in an international armed conflict with Israel as well, who has been conducting air strikes on Iranian targets in Syria without the consent of the GoS, and controls parts of Syria.
- Syria continued to be involved in several non-international armed conflicts with various anti-GoS armed groups, most notably HTS, the SNA, the SDF and ISIL.
- Non-international armed conflicts on Syrian territory further included ongoing infighting between various non-State armed groups.
- Türkiye is engaged in a non-international armed conflict in Syria with Kurdish forces and with ISIL.
- Israel is engaged in a non-international armed conflict in Syria with the Hezbollah.
[Security 2022, 1.1, p. 17]
The section indiscriminate violence in Syria provides further analysis and guidance with regard to the armed conflicts taking place on the territory of Syria at governorate level.