Last update: November 2021
*Minor updates added: February 2023
7.2.1. Absence of persecution or serious harm
When examining the element ‘absence of persecution or serious harm’, the decision-maker should refer to chapters 1 to 4 of this document. In addition, in particular when assessing whether there are potential new forms of persecution or serious harm, the section the implications of leaving Syria should be taken into account.
When assessing the requirement of safety with regard to the applicability of IPA in individual cases of applicants from Syria, the following elements should be taken into account:
7.2.2. Availability of protection against persecution or serious harm
Alternatively, it may be determined that the requirement of safety is satisfied if the applicant would have access to protection against persecution or serious harm, as defined in Article 7 QD, in the area where IPA is considered. However, in light of the analysis in the chapter 6. Actors of protection, there is in general no actor fulfilling the criteria of Article 7 QD.
The requirement of safety may be satisfied in Damascus City, depending on the profile and the individual circumstances of the applicant. For those who have a well-founded fear of persecution by the GoS and/or by society at large, IPA in Damascus will generally not meet the criterion of safety.