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3.1. Asylum knowledge

Asylum knowledge

To provide evidence-based information to a range of audiences, including policymakers, the EUAA collects, processes, synthesises and analyses information on specific themes, latest developments, emerging topics and forecasting in the field of asylum.


Country of origin information and country guidance

Country of origin information

Based on the well-established Country of Origin (COI) Report Methodology, the Agency produced 15 COI reports in 2022 in close collaboration with Member States. COI was produced consistently and timely, in particular to monitor the situation in Afghanistan and Ukraine. A guide was also developed on interviewing sources in the context of COI research.

The Agency continued to support national COI networks, facilitated information-exchange, built capacity and further generated knowledge in the area of COI, while more than 1,000 responses were provided to individual requests for Medical COI (MedCOI).

Country guidance involves a joint assessment by Member States of the situation in the main countries of origin. To enhance convergence in EU+ decision-making practices, new country guidance was produced on Somalia and Iraq, two updates were published on Afghanistan and additional update processes were completed for Afghanistan and Syria.

Information and analysis of asylum developments

Information and analysis of asylum developments

The EUAA continued to manage and update several databases which capture national developments in asylum and reception systems in EU+ countries, in addition to court cases related to asylum. Information was included daily into the Information and Documentation System (IDS) on CEAS, which serves as a central source of information for policymakers in EU+ countries. Its jurisprudential counterpart, the publicly-available EUAA Case Law Database, covers case law related to the implementation of CEAS issued by national courts, the CJEU and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). In 2022, there were more than 3,000 registered cases. The database is used to address internal and external requests for jurisprudential information, and four quarterly publications on case law were published to highlight how courts have shaped policies and practices related to all aspects of asylum.

The Agency continued to produce situational overviews and analyses on key areas of CEAS, in particular to address emerging information needs arising, for example, from the arrival of large waves of displaced persons from Ukraine.

In 2022, the EUAA launched the public platform, Who is Who in International Protection in the EU+, which presents key stakeholders and their roles in a range of areas in asylum and reception systems across EU+ countries. The platform contains interactive visualisations to view the mappings and PDF reports by theme.

Data analysis and research

Data analysis and research

Through the Early Warning and Preparedness System (EPS), the EUAA continued in 2022 to foster an effective exchange of a standardised set of indicators which quantify the asylum and reception situation in EU+ countries. Following the activation of the Temporary Protection Directive, the Agency swiftly developed and implemented a regular exchange of statistics on registrations of temporary protection across EU+ countries.

Work continued on early warning and forecasting to better understand the root causes of migration and support the planning of suitable policy and operational responses. A key product was the joint report with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the IOM on profiles, experiences and aspirations of displaced persons from and within Ukraine.

The Agency's strategic analysis products cover a number of asylum-related aspects, including latest trends, to provide national authorities and relevant EU institutions a situational overview of asylum across Europe.

Support in enhancing quality standards

Support in enhancing quality standards

To maximise the multiplying effect of expertise-sharing, the EUAA continued to facilitate practical cooperation and the sharing best practices among Member States on asylum processes and quality management. It supported the practical implementation of CEAS through the development of common practical guides and tools, guidelines and operational standards.

The Agency organised dedicated meetings for national authorities to discuss the implementation of the Temporary Protection Directive and its implications for the asylum procedure. In addition, material was developed quickly to provide information to displaced persons from Ukraine. A Quality Matrix Synthesis Report offers an overview of practices of national asylum administrations related to the personal interview, evidence assessments and qualifications for international protection. To assist with the daily work of case officers, new practical tools were developed for examining claims based on religion, political opinion and the detection and examination of exclusion cases.

The Agency continued to promote the convergence of practices across the EU. For example, the EUAA created a tool on family unity, which ensures consistency in the provision of information to applicants in the Dublin procedure on the possibility of reuniting with family members. The tool includes an online planner that supports Member States in effectively implementing Dublin transfers by providing information on procedures, opening hours and closure dates for border crossing points.

Practical guidance was developed on a range of topics concerning vulnerable persons, including age assessments, special needs and vulnerability assessments, screening of special needs and vulnerabilities, country information on support frameworks for people fleeing Ukraine, critical incident management, support to guardians on temporary protection, mental health of applicants, and issues related to sexual orientation, gender identity or expression and sex characteristics (SOGIESC).

In the area of reception, in 2022 the EUAA developed tools on emergency placement in private accommodation; rights and obligations in the context of temporary protection; self-identification of vulnerabilities for beneficiaries of temporary protection in reception; design and management of modular reception centres; and information provision material for applicants in reception. The creation of new standards and indicators on reception and related to vulnerable applicants was initiated, foreseen to be completed in 2023.

As part of the effort to promote common standards and further convergence in the implementation of the asylum acquis, the EUAA, through a dedicated network, cooperates with members of courts and tribunals in EU+ countries. In 2022, the Agency produced judicial analyses, as well as guidance for judicial training, which took stock of the latest developments in the implementation of CEAS and the most recent jurisprudence from European and national courts and tribunals. Through a series of workshops and regional conferences, the Agency helped members of courts and tribunals advance their knowledge in all procedural and substantial aspects of international protection.