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Abbreviations and glossary

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ACLED Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project
Ahrar al-Sham Sunni Salafist Jihadist armed group active in Syria, particularly Idlib Province; historical ‘partner’ of Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham in Syria
AI Amnesty International
Al-Yarmouk camp Main refugee camp for Palestinians; located in Damascus
APD  (Asylum Procedures Directive) Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection


Baath Party (Syria) Arab Socialist Baath Party; the ruling political party in Syria headed by Syrian President Bashar al-Assad


CAT Arab Socialist Baath Party; the ruling political party in Syria headed by Syrian President Bashar al-Assad
CEAS Common European Asylum System
CJEU Court of Justice of the European Union
COI Country of origin information
CoI Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic


DIS Danish Immigration Service


European Asylum Support Office
ECHR Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights), as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 and 14, 4 November 1950
ECtHR European Court of Human Rights
ERW Explosive Remnants of War
EU European Union
EUAA European Union Agency for Asylum


FSA Free Syrian Army


GoS Government of Syria


HAD Hurras al-Din
Hezbollah Lebanese Hezbollah; Lebanese Shia Islamist armed militant group backed by Iran and active on behalf of Assad in Syria
HTS Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham


International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
ID Identification documentation
IDP Internally displaced person
IED Improvised explosive device
ILAC International Legal Assistance Consortium
IPA Internal Protection Alternative
IRGC Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
ISIL The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), the Islamic State, or Daesh
ISW Institute for the Study of War


Jaysh al-Islam Sunni Salafist Jihadist armed opposition group active in Eastern Ghouta outside Damascus; rival of Faylaq al-Rahman


KNC Kurdish National Council


LDF Local Defence Forces, Quwat al Difa al Mahalli
LGBTIQ people are people:
who are attracted to others of their own gender (lesbian, gay) or any gender (bisexual);
whose gender identity and/or expression does not correspond to the sex they were assigned at birth (trans, non-binary);
who are born with sex characteristics that do not fit the typical definition of male or female (intersex); and
whose identity does not fit into a binary classification of sexuality and/or gender (queer).


NDF National Defence Forces, Quwat al Difa al Watani
NGO Non-governmental organisation
NLF National Liberation Front


PHC Primary Healthcare Centre
PKK Kurdistan Worker’s Party (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê)
PYD Popular Mobilisation Forces


QD (Qualification Directive) Directive 2011/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection, for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection, and for the content of the protection granted


RPG Rocket-propelled grenades


SAA Syrian Arab Army
SDF Syrian Democratic Forces
Shabiha A pro-government militia
Sharia The religious law of Islam, Islamic canonical law
SNA Syrian National Army
SNHR Syrian Network for Human Rights
SOHR Syrian Observatory for Human Rights
Suqour al-Sahara Desert Hawks; former irregular armed group supportive of Assad in Syria backed by wealthy Syrian Alawites
SYP Syrian pound


Taswiyat al-Wad´ the process of regulating one’s status
TEV-DEM Movement for a Democratic Society (Tevgera Civaka Demokratîk)
TIP Turkistan Islamic Party


UN United Nations
UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
UNOCHA United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
UNPFA United Nations Population Fund
UNRWA The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
US United States of America
USCIRF United States Commission on International Religious Freedom


VBIED Vehicle-borne improvised explosive device
VDC Violations Documentation Center in Syria


Wasta Networks of support based on patronage


YPG Kurdish People’s Protection Units
YPJ Kurdish Women’s Protection Units