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As held by CJEU in Elgafaji, Article 15(c) QD has additional scope to that of Article 3 ECHR and, therefore, has to be interpreted independently, but with due regard to human rights as they are guaranteed under the ECHR.

The harm that could affect an applicant’s life or person is not restricted to the physical, but may also include severe psychological harm where such harm would be clearly conflict induced.