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Applications for international protection should always be examined and decisions should always be made individually, objectively and impartially.

Case-by-case analysis should take into account the following key elements:

  • all relevant elements as they relate to the country of origin at the time of making a decision on the application;
  • the acts and threats to which the applicant has been or could be exposed;
  • the individual situation of the applicant, including factors such as background, gender and age;
  • the availability and accessibility of protection in the country of origin.

Protection needs are firstly assessed with regard to the applicant’s home area in the country of origin. The home area in the country of origin is identified on the basis of the strength of the applicant’s connections with a particular area in that country. The home area may be the area of birth or upbringing or a different area where the applicant settled and lived, and therefore has close connections to it.