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3. Can the treatment be considered as the accumulation of various measures, the consequences of which would affect the applicant in a similar manner?

The treatment may also amount to persecution if it constitutes an accumulation of various measures which, taken together, and sometimes in combination with other adverse personal circumstances and/or taking into account the general context, affect the individual in a similar way to a violation of their basic rights.

A ‘similar’ way does not mean the ‘same’ way, and a lower threshold of severity may suffice. The assessment should be made on a case-by-case basis and taking into account the individual circumstances of the applicant.

Those various measures may, for example, violate the applicant’s economic, social and cultural rights, such as the right to education, to health, to work, to social security or to take part in cultural life.