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According to the QD, the concept of religion shall in particular include considerations of:

The ground of religion has a broad and flexible definition in accordance with the QD, including the conduct based on or mandated by any religious belief, which may cover day-to-day behaviour, way of life, and community customs and mores.

Essential to this ground is also the assessment of the right not to practise a religion, to atheism or to change one’s religion. It also includes the possibility to practise the religion in public, including the right to propagate the faith through proselytisation.

However, it should be noted that the exercise of harmful religious practices, which may affect a person’s physical or psychological integrity, does not fall under the protection of international human rights and refugee law.