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The nexus requirement (‘by reason of’) refers to the causal link between the indiscriminate violence and the harm (serious threat to a civilian’s life or person).

The interpretation of the causation ‘by reason of’ may not be limited to harm which is directly caused by the indiscriminate violence or by acts which emanate from the actors in the conflict.

To a certain extent, it may also include the indirect effect of indiscriminate violence in situations of armed conflict. As long as there is a demonstrable link with the indiscriminate violence, certain indirect effects may be taken into account in the assessment, for example widespread criminal violence as a result of a complete breakdown of law and order, destruction of the necessary means to survive, problems related to food supply and healthcare accessibility.