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Serious and individual threat to a civilian’s life or person by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of international or internal armed conflict


The elements which need to be established in order to apply Article 15(c) QD include:

International or internal armed conflict

     Civilian                                               Indisciminate           violence                  Serious and individual treat                (To) life or       person                Nexus (by reason of indiscriminate violence)

It should, furthermore, be noted that the application of Article 15(c) QD is significantly dependant on the general situation in the country of origin. Therefore, assessing objective and up-to-date country-of-origin information is a crucial element in this regard.