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Geneva Convention
Article 1A(2)

The Geneva Convention provides five reasons for persecution on the basis of which refugee status is recognised. These are race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group and political opinion. These are not mutually exclusive and more than one ground may be relevant in a given case.

It is also important to note that the reason for persecution may not be an actual characteristic of the applicant but may be imputed to them.

Moreover, all grounds mentioned could be triggered in relation to an action, as well as an omission, of the applicant.

The assessment cannot rest on an assumption that the person could avoid persecution by abstaining from certain practices linked to these grounds, for example religious practices, expression of gender identity, sexual orientation or political opinion.