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Abbreviations and glossary

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ACLED:  Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project
Ahrar al-Sham:  Sunni Salafist Jihadist armed group active in Syria, particularly Idlib Province; historical ‘partner’ of Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham in Syria
AI: Amnesty International
Al-Yarmouk camp: Main refugee camp for Palestinians; located in Damascus
APD  (Asylum Procedures Directive):  Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection


Baath Party (Syria): Arab Socialist Baath Party; the ruling political party in Syria headed by Syrian President Bashar al-Assad


CAT: Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
CJEU: Court of Justice of the European Union
COI: Country of origin information
CoI:  Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic


EASO: European Asylum Support Office
ECHR: Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights), as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 and 14, 4 November 1950
ECtHR: European Court of Human Rights
EU: European Union


FSA: Free Syrian Army


GoS: Government of Syria


HAD: Hurras al-Din
Hezbollah: Lebanese Hezbollah; Lebanese Shia Islamist armed militant group backed by Iran and active on behalf of Assad in Syria
HTS: Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham


ID: Identification documentation
IDP: Internally displaced person
IED: Improvised explosive device
ILAC: International Legal Assistance Consortium
IPA: Internal Protection Alternative
IRGC: Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
ISIL: The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), the Islamic State, or Daesh
ISW: Institute for the Study of War


Jaysh al-Islam:  Sunni Salafist Jihadist armed opposition group active in Eastern Ghouta outside Damascus; rival of Faylaq al-Rahman


KNC: Kurdish National Council


LDF: Local Defence Forces, Quwat al Difa al Mahalli
LGBTILesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Intersex.


NDF: National Defence Forces, Quwat al Difa al Watani
NGO: Non-governmental organisation
NLF: National Liberation Front


PHCPrimary Healthcare Centre
PKK: Kurdistan Worker’s Party
PYD: Popular Mobilisation Forces


QD (Qualification Directive) Directive 2011/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection, for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection, and for the content of the protection granted


RPG: Rocket-propelled grenades


SAA: Syrian Arab Army
SDF: Syrian Democratic Forces
Shabiha: A pro-government militia
Sharia: The religious law of Islam, Islamic canonical law
SNA: Syrian National Army
SNHR: Syrian Network for Human Rights
SOHR: Syrian Observatory for Human Rights
Suqour al-Sahara: Desert Hawks; former irregular armed group supportive of Assad in Syria backed by wealthy Syrian Alawites
SYP: Syrian pound


Taswiyat al-Wad´: the process of regulating one’s status
TEV-DEM: Movement for a Democratic Society (Tevgera Civaka Demokratîk)
TIP: Turkistan Islamic Party


UN: United Nations
UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF: United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
UNOCHA: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
UNPFA: United Nations Population Fund
UNRWA: The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East
US: United States of America
USCIRF: United States Commission on International Religious Freedom


VBIED: Vehicle-borne improvised explosive device
VDC: Violations Documentation Center in Syria


Wasta:  Networks of support based on patronage


YPG: Kurdish People’s Protection Units
YPJ: Kurdish Women’s Protection Units