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Last update: August 2023

Special attention should be paid to the phenomena of arbitrary arrests and illegal detention, as well as to prison conditions. It can be assessed that in cases where the prosecution or punishment is grossly unfair or disproportionate, or where a person is subjected to prison conditions which are not compatible with respect for human dignity, a situation of serious harm under Article 15(b) QD can occur. When assessing the conditions of detention, the following elements can, for example, be taken into consideration, cumulatively: number of detained persons in a limited space, adequacy of sanitation facilities, heating, lighting, sleeping arrangements, food, recreation or contact with the outside world.

Urban prisons in Somalia, especially following large security incidents, are at times overcrowded, with authorities often not separating pre-trial detainees from convicted prisoners, especially in the southern and central regions. In these areas, including areas under the control of Al-Shabaab, prison conditions are believed to be harsh and at times life-threatening due to poor sanitation and hygiene, inadequate food and water, and lack of medical care. Disease outbreaks and long pre-trial detention period have been reported. Reportedly, Garowe Prison in Puntland and Hargeisa Prison in Somaliland met international standards and were well-managed. [Actors, 2.4.5., pp. 42-43; 4.4., p.66].

Where there is no nexus to a reason for persecution, the risk of being subjected to arrest, detention or imprisonment may, in some cases, qualify under Article 15(b) QD.

Exclusion considerations may be relevant.