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Last update: August 2023

In armed conflicts, the targeting of civilians may have nexus to one of the reasons for persecution according to the refugee definition. Therefore, refugee status may be granted as noted in the section above. 

a. Reference period

The following assessment is based on the EUAA COI report on the security situation in Somalia (February 2023) [Security 2023]. The general reference period for this chapter is 1 July 2021 – 30 November 2022, exception made for some crucial developments that took place in December 2022. Some indicators are updated with information concerning the period 1 December 2022 – 31 April 2023 based on the EUAA COI Update 2023.

This guidance should be considered valid as long as current events and developments fall within the trends and patterns of violence observed within the reference period of the mentioned COI report. New events and developments that cause substantial changes, new trends or geographical shifts in the violence, may lead to a different assessment. The security situation of a given territory should always be assessed in light of the most up-to-date available COI.

b. Legal framework

Article 15(c) QD defines the third type of harm that constitutes a ground for qualification for subsidiary protection. It covers a more general risk of harm and the protection needs which may arise from armed conflict situations.


Figure 4. Article 15(c) QD: elements of the assessment.


All of these elements have to be fulfilled in order to grant subsidiary protection under Article 15(c) QD.

Common analysis and assessment of the factual preconditions for the possible application of Article 15(c) QD with regard to the situation in Somalia are provided in the sub-sections below.