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Last update: August 2023

The situation in Wogoyi Galbeed should be seen in light of the situation in the neighbouring regions of Awdal to the west and Togdheer to the east.

Main COI references: [Security 2023, 2.8.2., pp. 182-185; COI Update 2023, 1.3.4., p. 19;  Security 2021,, p. 146; Socio-economic 2021, 3.1., p. 71]


General information

Wogoyi Galbeed region consists of three districts. The region’s capital is Hargeisa, which is also the capital of Somaliland.

Hargeisa has become the biggest urban setting in Somaliland, has been almost entirely rebuilt, and has expanded rapidly in both size and density.

Wogooy Galbeed is predominantly inhabited by the Habar Awal clan. The other two main clans in the region are Habar Yunis and Idagalle. As to the state capital, Hargeisa, its neighbourhoods are strongly clan-related, with the town territory partitioned among the various clans and sub-clans present in town: mainly Habar Awal, Habar Yonis, Habar Jeelo, Idagalle, but also minority groups.

In 2021, UNOCHA estimated the population of Wogoyi Galbeed at 1 224 717 inhabitants.

Background and actors involved in armed confrontations

Wogooy Galbeed is characterised by stability and safety. The whole region is under the control of the Somaliland administration and security forces.

Clan militias and unidentified armed groups occasionally clash with Somaliland police and military forces.

Al-Shabaab presence was not reported during the reference period.

Nature of violence and examples of incidents

Somaliland police and security forces used violence, including live ammunition to disperse crowd protesting in Hargeisa in June and August 2022 in connection to political tensions over elections planning and timing. Violence resulted in the death of 3 and the injury of 34 civilians in Hargeisa.

Incidents: data

ACLED recorded 8 security incidents (an average of 0.1 security incidents per week) in Wogoyi Galbeed region between 1 July 2021 and 30 November 2022, ranking the region second lowest in terms of security incidents. Out of those incidents, 2 were coded as ‘battles’ and 6 as ‘violence against civilians’. In the period from 1 December 2022 to 14 April 2023, no security incident was recorded in Wogoyi Galbeed.

Geographical scope

Security incidents occurred in 2 out of 3 districts of Wogoyi Galbeed region with all -but one- being recorded in Hargeisa district (7 incidents) and one being recorded in Gebiley.

Fatalities among civilians and non-civilians

In the 17 months between July 2021 and November 2022, ACLED recorded a total of 8 fatalities in the region. In the 4.5 months between December 2022 and mid-April 2023, ACLED recorded no fatality in the region. Compared to the figures for the population in the region as from 2021, this represents less than 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants for the whole reference period.


Between July 2021 and November 2022, confict and insecurity resulted in 151 individuals arriving in Wogoyi Galbeed region, and more particularly, in Hargeisa.

Between December 2022 and March 2023, 621 individuals were newly displaced from Wogoyi Galbeed, according to PRMN.

Further impact on civilians

The presence of entry and exit checkpoints at each district within Somaliland has been reported. Residents can, in general, freely move around without ‘too many security concerns’, with the road from Berbera to Hargeisa in general being safe. Since Al-Shabaab presence is very limited, if any, goods and supplies travel back and forth [Security 2023, 2.8.4., pp. 190-191]. There are also checkpoints on all the roads leading in and out of Hargeisa, a city attracting a large number of refugees, returnees and IDPs [KSEI 2021, 3.1. p. 72; pp. 75-76]. Eleven humanitarian access incidents were documented by UNOCHA during the reference period.

Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the region Wogoyi Galbeed, there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.