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Last update: August 2023

The situation in Togdheer should be seen in light of the situation in the neighbouring regions of Wogoyi Galbeed and Awdal.

Main COI reference: [Security 2023, 2.8.3., pp. 186-190; COI Update 2023, 1.3.4, pp. 16, 19]


General information

Togdheer region consists of four districts. The region’s capital is Burco (or Burao).

Togdheer region is predominantly inhabited by Habar Yunis and Habar Jeelo clans. The area west of Burao is inhabited by Idagalle, along with other minority sub-clans that are considered part of the Habar Yunis major clan. The inhabitants of Buuhoodle, in the south of the region, are nearly all members of the Dhulbahante clan.

In 2021, UNOCHA estimated the population of Todgheer at 728 223 inhabitants.

Background and actors involved in armed confrontations

The entire region of Togdheer region is under the control of the Somaliland administration and security forces, with the exception of Buhodle town, where control between Somaliland and Puntland authorities is either mixed or unclear or is exercised locally. Buhodle is perceived as the centre of the Khatumo statehood movement.

Buhodle town, which falls within Somaliland’s administrative power, refuses to be part of Somaliland, and at times it allies with the FGS and at times with the Puntland administration.

Inter and intra-clan disputes, involving clan militias, over land and water wells have been reported. A source has indicated that the real issue is actually linked to clan growth and expansion dynamics.

Al-Shabaab presence was not reported during the reference period.

Nature of violence and examples of incidents

In August 2022 protests took place in Burco in connection to political tensions over elections planning and timing (similarly to Hargeisa and Ceerigabo). Violence resulted in the death of one and the injury of 42 civilians in Burco.

In June 2022, military operations by Puntland’s security forces were reported in Buhodle district, targeting members of the Somaliland government. In November 2022, clashes between Puntland’s Dervish forces clashed and Somaliland forces were reported in the same area.

Protests were also reported in November 2022 in Burco, resulting in the injury of at least seven people.

The killing of one and the injury of another civilian in December 2021 by armed militiamen who opened fire against them in Balig, Gadaale area under a reportedly clan-related motive has been reported.

Incidents: data

ACLED recorded 11 security incidents (an average of 0.1 security incidents per week) in Togdheer region between 1 July 2021 and 30 November 2022. Out of those incidents, 8 were coded as ‘battles’, 2 as ‘remote violence / explosions’ and 6 as ‘violence against civilians’. In the period from 1 December 2022 to 14 April 2023, 1 security incident was recorded in Todgheer.

Geographical scope

Security incidents occurred in all 3 districts of Togdheer region with the largest overall number being recorded in Buhodle district (6 incidents).

Fatalities among civilians and non-civilians

In the 17 months between July 2021 and November 2022, ACLED recorded a total of 8 fatalities in the region. In the 4.5 months between December 2022 and mid-April 2023, ACLED recorded no fatality in the region. Compared to the figures for the population in the region as from 2021, this represents approximately 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants for the whole reference period.


Between July 2021 and November 2022, 13 individuals were newly displaced from Togdheer according to PRMN. No conflict- or insecurity-related displacements to or within Togdheer region were recorded in the reference period. Between December 2022 and March 2023, 365 individuals were newly displaced from Todgheer, according to PRMN.

Further impact on  civilians

The presence of entry and exit checkpoints at each district within Somaliland has been reported. Residents can in general freely move around without ‘too many security concerns’. Since Al-Shabaab presence is very limited, if any, goods and supplies travel back and forth [Security 2023, 2.8.4., pp. 190-191]. One humanitarian access incident was documented by UNOCHA during the reference period.

Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the region of Todgheer, there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.