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Last update: October 2021

Besides the non-State actors mentioned above, the family or family members can be an actor of persecution or serious harm, such as in the case of domestic violence, violence against lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) persons, forced and child marriages, female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C), etc. FGM/C practitioners, including traditional circumcisers and health care professionals, are another potential example of non-State actors of persecution or serious harm.

The reach of a specific non-State actor and their ability to trace and target the applicant depend on the individual case. The individual power positions of the applicant and the actor of persecution or serious harm should be assessed, taking into consideration their social status, wealth, connections, gender, level of education, etc.