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Last update: October 2021

Cross River state is composed of 18 LGAs and its capital is Calabar city. The state’s estimated population was 3 866 269 in 2016.

Ethnic or communal conflicts have traditionally been a source of violence in Cross River state, and in recent years have become more frequent and more dangerous for the population. In 2020, some of the main actors in conflicts in the area included local communities, herders and farmers, rival cult gangs, criminal gangs and mobs. The Nigerian government continued to deploy armed forces to tackle internal security issues, such as, in particular, robberies and kidnappings.

Compared to 2019, there was a decrease in incidents of communal violence in the state during 2020. However communal violence, including farmer/herder conflicts, represented one of the main sources of conflict in the state, along with criminal, cult violence, vigilantism and mob justice, clashes between police and militants or protesters. Communal militias engaged in armed clashes over boundary disputes, resulting in deaths and injuries.  Clashes amongst gangs were also reported.  Kidnappings for ransom has also become a major security issue in the state.

During 2020, ACLED reported a total of 35 security incidents (11 battles, 14 cases of violence against civilians, 10 incidents of riots) in Cross River state (average of 0.7 security incident per week). Security incidents took place in 14 out of 18 LGAs, with the largest overall number (12) being recorded in the LGA of Calabar.

The abovementioned security incidents resulted in 40 deaths. Compared to the estimated population in the state, this represents approximately 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants.

From 1 January to 30 April 2021, ACLED reported a total of 7 security incidents (4 battles, 2 cases of violence against civilians, 1 incident of riots) in Cross River state (average of 0.4 security incident per week). These security incidents resulted in 12 deaths.

Information on the number of conflict-related IDPs and on the number of returnees in Cross River state could not be found.

Criminal activities and robberies were reported along roads and highways.


Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the state of Cross River there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.
Main COI reference: Security situation 2021, 2.41