Ondo state is composed of 18 LGAs and its capital is Akure city. The state’s estimated population was 4 671 695 in 2016.
Historically, Ondo state was affected by the emergence of several armed groups, like the Niger Delta Avengers (NDA) and Joint Niger Delta Liberation Force (JNDLF). However, since November 2016 there has been no major incident by NDA in the Niger Delta. Since 2018, violence due to herder-farmers has spread to Ondo State. Actors in violence included rioters and unidentified armed groups, militants from rivalling political parties, militias of herders and farmers, and militias from communities. In Ondo state, as well as in the other five states of South-West region, the Western Nigeria Security Network was established to protect communities from herder-farmer conflicts and/or criminal activities.
During 2020, Ondo state was mostly affected by communal violence and herders-farmers conflict, caused by tensions over land and boundary disputes, which resulted in several fatalities. Mob violence and violent clashes between protesters and security forces were also frequent. Incidents of abductions were also reported.
During 2020, ACLED reported a total of 55 security incidents (8 battles, 34 cases of violence against civilians, 13 incidents of riots) in Ondo state (average of 1.1 security incidents per week). Security incidents took place in 14 out of 18 LGAs, with the largest overall number (18) being recorded in the LGA of Akure South.
The abovementioned security incidents resulted in 22 deaths. Compared to the estimated population in the state, this represents less than 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants.
From 1 January to 30 April 2021, ACLED reported a total of 16 security incidents (4 battles, 9 cases of violence against civilians, 3 incidents of riots) in Ondo state (average of 0.9 security incident per week). These security incidents resulted in 12 deaths.
Information on the number of conflict-related IDPs and on the number of returnees in Ondo state could not be found.
Incidents of kidnapping were reported in some roads of Ondo state.
Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the state of Ondo there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.