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Last update: February 2019
*Minor updates added October 2021

Criminal violence constitutes a serious security and public safety concern in Nigeria, especially in relation to crimes committed by organised groups, such as cults, traffickers in human beings, bandits engaged in cattle rustling, etc. Generally, an increasing level of violence and firearms proliferation is noted across the country, particularly manifesting in ransom kidnapping along highways and in schools, armed robbery and other forms of violent crime committed by gangs. Mob violence is also reported. [Targeting,, 3.12.2; Security situation 2021,]

Several profiles must be carefully evaluated, taking into account the applicant’s activities, role, responsibilities, etc.

Members of student cults engage in different criminal activities such as killings, rape, armed robbery, kidnapping, human trafficking, prostitution of others, drugs trafficking, extortions, etc. [Targeting, 2.3; Security situation 2021,].

Nigerian networks active in human trafficking are involved in prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, removal of organs, etc. In the case of trafficking for sexual exploitation, Madams also play a central role in the process. [Targeting, 2.4; Trafficking].