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Last update: October 2021

Oyo state is composed of 32 LGAs and its capital is Ibadan city. The state’s estimated population was 7 840 864 in 2016.

Since 2018 the deadly conflict between herders and farmers started to expand from the Middle Belt to the South-West and South-East regions, as herders were searching for grazing routes for their cattle. Actors in Oyo state included rioters in clashes with civilians and police forces, unidentified armed groups, Fulani militias, and other communal militias. In Oyo state, as well as in the other five states of the South-West region, the Western Nigeria Security Network was established to protect communities from herder-farmer conflicts and/or criminal activities.

During 2020, the state has witnessed high-level insecurity, and kidnappings for ransom, highway robberies and herdsmen attacks are the main problems that affect residents. The majority of incidents in Oyo state were protests and riots, including mob-violence, while armed clashes between security forces, communal militias and unidentified armed groups were also recorded. Violent incidents against civilians included mostly attacks from ethnic militias and unidentified armed groups. Cases of abductions have been also reported.

During 2020, ACLED reported a total of 47 security incidents (8 battles, 20 cases of violence against civilians, 19 incidents of riots) in Oyo state (average of 0.9 security incident per week). Security incidents took place in 14 out of 32 LGAs, with the largest overall number (22) being recorded in the LGA of Akinyele.

The abovementioned security incidents resulted in 41 deaths. Compared to the estimated population in the state, this represents less than 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants.

From 1 January to 30 April 2021, ACLED reported a total of 38 security incidents (5 battles, 23 cases of violence against civilians, 10 incidents of riots) in Oyo state (average of 2.2 security incidents per week). These security incidents resulted in 29 deaths.

Information on the number of conflict-related IDPs and on the number of returnees in Oyo state could not be found.

The Ilorin-Ogbomoso road in Atisbo LGA has been described as unsafe, due to kidnapping incidents by suspected herdsmen.


Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the state of Oyo there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.
Main COI reference: Security situation 2021, 2.31