Kaduna state is composed of 22 LGAs and its capital is Kaduna city. The state’s estimated population was 8 252 366 in 2016.
The city of Kaduna has long been the centre of political, ethnic and religious violence. Kaduna state is reportedly surpassing Borno state as the ‘epicentre of violence’. The main actors of violence include Fulani ethnic militias, unidentified armed groups, the military forces of Nigeria, and Kaduna communal militia. Boko Haram has also allegedly conducted attacks in the state. Furthermore, in 2020, the Islamist armed group Ansaru conducted its first attacks in five years. Even though state security forces have arrested or killed hundreds of men suspected of being part of herder-allied groups and criminal gangs, rescued hundreds of kidnapped persons and recovered weapons and ammunition, ‘the army failed to consolidate those gains and hold territory, enabling the groups to soon reorganise and return’ according to local interlocutors.
Farmer-herder conflicts have intensified in the North-West region of Nigeria during the COVID-19 lockdown period. The whole state of Kaduna experienced increasing levels of violent conflicts and kidnappings and it has been reported that worst affected are villages in the southern part of the state. The Federal security forces launched several anti-banditry operations in the North-West region, including in Kaduna. Major armed clashes have resulted in many fatalities amongst soldiers and militiamen. Civilians have also been injured and killed during attacks in villages and communities. In March 2020, armed men, allegedly belonging to Boko Haram, attacked several villages resulting in casualties and property destruction. Reprisal attacks in villages by unknown gunmen or bandits continued in 2021. Furthermore, a new wave of mass kidnappings from schools or universities by unknown gunmen has also been witnessed, including in Kaduna state. In one occasion, victims of kidnapping were found dead.
During 2020, ACLED reported a total of 227 security incidents (58 battles, 15 incidents of remote violence/explosions, 144 cases of violence against civilians, 10 incidents of riots) in Kaduna state (average of 4.3 security incidents per week). Security incidents took place in 19 out of the 22 LGAs, with the largest overall number (52) being recorded in the LGA of Chikun.
The abovementioned security incidents resulted in 869 deaths. Compared to the estimated population in the state, this represents approximately 11 fatalities per 100 000 inhabitants.
From 1 January to 30 April 2021, ACLED reported a total of 188 security incidents (51 battles, 33 incidents of remote violence/explosions, 98 cases of violence against civilians, 6 incidents of riots) in Kaduna state (average of 11.1 security incidents per week). These security incidents resulted in 500 deaths.
The total number of IDPs for Kaduna by December 2020 was 89 629, an increase of 33 % compared to data recorded in July 2020. No specific data were found for Kaduna state with regard to the number of returnees.
Α new humanitarian crisis is emerging in the state of Kaduna. As a result of the hundreds of violent incidents in Kaduna state, many houses and properties have been burnt, crops have been destroyed and large numbers of cattle were rustled or killed. The Abuja-Kaduna-Kano highway is notorious for violent kidnappings.
Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that indiscriminate violence is taking place in the state of Kaduna, however not at a high level. Accordingly, a higher level of individual elements is required in order to show substantial grounds for believing that a civilian, returned to the territory, would face a real risk of serious harm within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.