Kano state is composed of 44 LGAs and its capital is Kano city. The state’s estimated population was 13 076 892 in 2016.
As in other North-West region states, violence in Kano State is often related to cattle rustling and conflicts over land and resources. Since 2014, the North-West region has suffered a surge of violence between pastoralists and armed bandits, on one hand, and farmers supported by community and state-sponsored vigilantes, on the other. The main actors in Kano state’s violence include unidentified armed groups and rioters. Cattle rustling is mostly carried out by large, well-armed criminal groups. Kano state has also seen a proliferation of small arms available to gangs, cattle rustlers, and Fulani rangers, which cannot be sufficiently addressed by the state police forces. However, the Nigerian army has taken steps to increase its presence in the region. The Abuja-Kaduna-Kano road is notorious for kidnappings for ransom.
Farmer-herder conflicts have intensified in the North-West region of Nigeria during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Security incidents in 2020 included abductions and attacks by unidentified armed groups to civilian properties, such as shops and houses. Civilian casualties were also reported during a protest demonstration in 2020, as a result of an attack by unidentified armed men.
During 2020, ACLED reported a total of 12 security incidents (2 battles, 7 cases of violence against civilians, 3 incidents of riots) in Kano state (average of 0.2 security incidents per week). Security incidents took place in 6 out of 44 LGAs, with the largest overall number (4) being recorded in the LGA of Kano municipal.
The abovementioned security incidents resulted in 6 deaths. Compared to the estimated population in the state, this represents less than 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants.
From 1 January to 30 April 2021, ACLED reported a total of 3 security incidents (1 case of violence against civilians, 2 incidents of riots) in Kano state (average of 0.2 security incidents per week). These security incidents resulted in 1 death.
The total number of IDPs for Kano by December 2020 was 50 676. No specific data were found for Kano state with regard to the number of returnees.
Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the state of Kano there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.