Edo state is composed of 18 LGAs and its capital is Benin city. The state’s estimated population was 4 235 595 in 2016.
The conflict between herdsmen and farmers has also spread to Edo state, with the first incident of such nature reported in 2015. Since then, clashes between farmers and Fulani herdsmen in the state have resulted in loss of lives and destruction of properties. Cultism has also been one of the major sources of violence in the Niger Delta. In 2020, Edo was the third most affected state by violence within the Niger Delta, after Delta and Rivers states, and the main actors of violence included herders and farmers, rival cult groups, criminal gangs, and security forces involved in counter-insurgency operations. During 2020, the Nigerian government continued to deploy armed forces to tackle internal security issues. The presence of communal militias was also reported in Edo state.
Some of the main drivers of conflict and security issues included criminal violence and gang/cult supremacy clashes, violent clashes between herders and farmers, vigilantism and mob justice, violent protests and counter-insurgency operations in relation to the #EndSars protests. Cult and gang related violence and criminality were major security issues. Criminal violence included mainly armed banditry, kidnapping, mob lynching, clashes between criminals and security operatives. In some occasions, armed clashes between gangs resulted in fatalities and civilians fleeing or hiding in order to avoid stray bullets. Fatalities during #EndSars protests as a result of soldiers using force to disperse the demonstrators were also reported. Robbery and kidnapping have occurred over the years, including in 2020, on some roads in the state.
During 2020, ACLED reported a total of 53 security incidents (9 battles, 1 remote violence/explosion, 27 cases of violence against civilians, 16 incidents of riots) in Edo state (average of 1 security incident per week). Security incidents took place in 13 out of 18 LGAs, with the largest overall number (18) being recorded in the LGA of Oredo.
The abovementioned security incidents resulted in 51 deaths. Compared to the estimated population in the state, this represents approximately 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants.
From 1 January to 30 April 2021, ACLED reported a total of 13 security incidents (3 battles, 8 cases of violence against civilians, 2 incidents of riots) in Edo state (average of 0.8 security incident per week). These security incidents resulted in 12 deaths.
Information on the number of conflict-related IDPs and on the number of returnees in Edo state could not be found.
Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the state of Edo there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.