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Last update: October 2021

Kebbi state is composed of 21 LGAs and its capital is Birnin Kebbi city. The state’s estimated population was 4 440 050 in 2016.

Violence in Kebbi state is often related to cattle rustling and conflicts over land and resources. Actors in the security incidents include Fulani militia groups and the Hausa vigilante groups.  Hausa vigilante groups created to protect their villages have become a source of insecurity and are mentioned in reports on violence and kidnapping. In addition, ISWAP is building capacity of several small radical groups in the North-West. In Kebbi, these groups are situated in Zuru LGA. Kebbi state authorities have encouraged the creation of neighbourhood watch vigilante groups to generate intelligence, identify potential criminals and report suspicious persons, movements, and activities.

Farmer-herder conflicts have intensified in the North-West region during the COVID-19 lockdown period. In May 2020 violence had spread from its epicentre in Zamfara state to other states including Kebbi. However, Kebbi, in comparison with other North-West region states, was stage of a small number of violent incidents. In 2020, security incidents included abductions and armed attacks by militias resulting in multiple casualties.

During 2020, ACLED reported a total of 6 security incidents (1 battle, 4 cases of violence against civilians, 1 incident of riots) in Kebbi state (average of 0.1 security incidents per week). Security incidents took place in a 4 out of 21 LGAs, with the largest overall (2) number being recorded in the LGAs of Wasagu/Danko and Zuru.

The abovementioned security incidents resulted in 10 deaths. Compared to the estimated population in the state, this represents less than 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants.

From 1 January to 30 April 2021, ACLED reported a total of 4 security incidents (2 battles, 2 incidents of riots) in Kebbi state (average of 0.2 security incidents per week). These security incidents resulted in 21 deaths.

IOM-DTM data showed that 87 % of the IDPs in North-West and North-Central regions were displaced within their state of origin, 13 % were displaced from a different state. As of January 2021, 419 457 IDPs were registered in the North-West region. Information on the number of conflict-related IDPs and on the number of returnees in Kebbi state could not be found.

Α new humanitarian crisis is emerging in the state of Kebbi. The Minna-Birnin Kebbi road was mentioned as one of the most insecure and dangerous roads in Nigeria due to the risk of kidnapping.


Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the state of Kebbi there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.
Main COI reference: Security situation 2021, 2.5