The main actors in Abia state were police services, cults and unidentified gunmen, and groups involved in community clashes. In 2020, the state experienced intercommunal confrontations over land and resources. The government of Abia state has taken measures to reduce conflicts between farmers and herders and to curb street cultism, with the support of Nigerian state forces. Police has resolved cases of armed robbery, kidnapping and murder. Pro-Biafra activities, including activities of ESN, have also been reported in the area.
Reportedly, some of the incidents with the highest numbers of fatalities resulted from inter-state clashes. In this context, destruction of houses has also been reported. Kidnappings and cult killings also took place in the state. In 2020, several fatalities were recorded due to state forces’ violence on checkpoints, during COVID-19 lockdown enforcement check-ups, and during #EndSARS protests or under other unknown circumstances. The use of live ammunition against protesters was documented. Several incidents of extra-judicial killings by public security forces were also reported in Abia state during the year.
During 2020, ACLED reported a total of 31 security incidents (8 battles, 14 cases of violence against civilians, 9 incidents of riots) in Abia state (average of 0.6 security incident per week). Security incidents took place in 10 out of 18 LGAs, with the largest overall number (9) being recorded in the LGA of Aba South.
The abovementioned security incidents resulted in 23 deaths. Compared to the estimated population in the state, this represents less than 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants.
From 1 January to 30 April 2021, ACLED reported a total of 8 security incidents (5 battles, 1 incident of remote violence/explosions, 1 case of violence against civilians, 1 incident of riots) in Abia state (average of 0.5 security incident per week). These security incidents resulted in 10 deaths.
Information on the number of conflict-related IDPs and on the number of returnees in Abia state could not be found.
Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the state of Abia there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.
Main COI reference: Security situation 2021, 2.21