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Last update: February 2019
*Minor updates added October  2021

COI summary

[Targeting, 3.9]

There are different levels of ‘traditional’ chiefs and some are part of the state administrative system and are appointed by the state government. The role is well-respected and sought-after. Nowadays, initiation rites do not include dangerous elements for the participants. There is strong competition for certain chieftaincy titles, and titles are rarely refused. However, some people do refuse them. Sources agree that there are no consequences when a title is refused. Being coerced into chieftaincy is conceivable, but not likely.

Risk analysis

There is no information of acts which would amount to persecution.

Nexus to a reason for persecution

In the exceptional case where well-founded fear of persecution would be substantiated, persecution may be for reasons of (imputed) political opinion.