Last update: February 2019
*Minor updates added October 2021
Based on available COI, the general situation regarding the elements mentioned above is assessed as follows:
In general, except for the North-East, there are no significant food shortages in Nigeria. The main variable in access to food are the means of subsistence available to the applicant, which in the case of IDPs can be a particular concern. The Lagos state government is reportedly dedicated to improving food security, in order to improve employment and reduce poverty [Key socio-economic indicators
, 2.5]. In 2020, it was reported that inflation in food prices has affected household consumption and access to food for the most vulnerable [Security situation 2021
Housing and shelter
The rapid growth of the urban population outpaces the necessary infrastructure, services and economy. This results in urban slums, poverty, housing shortage, inadequate governmental services, growing social and economic inequalities, street violence and crime. Apart from the residential areas, which are oriented towards the middle class, informal settlements in the core areas of cities are the oldest and largest settlements, with markets and other commercial services. The living conditions in slums, as studied for Lagos, are dire [Key socio-economic indicators
, 2.6.1, 2.6.2].
Health and sanitation problems arise from the rapid urbanisation due to a lack of electricity, sewage, potable water, and adequate housing. Many urban dwellers do not have access to potable water, because of lack of maintenance, underinvestment, lack of governmental subsidies to ensure access to water by the poor. It is reported that sanitation in urban areas is improving [Key socio-economic indicators
Basic health care
Generally, relevant reports show shortage and uneven distribution of medical facilities and staff across Nigeria, limited access to treatment because of structural deficiencies (including high medical cost), limited access to medication (over 60 % of the Nigerian population lacks access to medication) [Key socio-economic indicators
, 2.8.2, 2.8.3].
Means of basic subsistence
Given the economic and security situation, there are high rates of unemployment and underemployment, especially for the youth, the women and the IDPs, and this trend has worsened in recent years. Ιn August 2020 it was reported that 27 % of Nigeria’s labour force (over 21 million Nigerians) were unemployed. At the same time, although there is still a large workforce in the country, their incomes are insufficient as a strong cushion against poverty. There is a significant, visible difference between the northern and southern regions of Nigeria (poorer north and richer south), as well as between different states, while the Middle Belt is characterised as having the highest levels of inequality. Female-headed households and IDPs are more exposed to poverty and dire living conditions [Key socio-economic indicators
, 2.3, 2.4].
More recent information for 2020 suggests that the Nigerian economy experienced a recession, reportedly its worst in four decades, due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the fall in global oil prices. The impact on revenue has curtailed service delivery and social safety net programmes. According to a 2020 report of World Bank, 83 million Nigerians live below the poverty line [Security situation 2021, 1.1].
The general circumstances prevailing in Nigeria, assessed in relation to the factors above, do not preclude the reasonableness to settle a particular part of Nigeria, such as the city of Lagos. However, the assessment should take into account the individual circumstances of the applicant. The impact of COVID-19 on the economic situation, as well as on the healthcare system, should also be given due consideration.