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Last update: October 2021

Kogi state is composed of 21 LGAs and its capital is Lokoja city. The state’s estimated population was 4 473 490 in 2016.

While the farmers-herders crisis started as a Northern Middle Belt phenomenon, it has spread to the entire country, constituting a national crisis.  Kogi state is one of the states in Nigeria that are affected by the increasing farmer-herder conflicts. Actors in the attacks include various local militias, Fulani ethnic militias, unidentified cult militias, farmers, herders, and the Nigerian police and security forces. In August 2020, security measures were stepped up, including a destruction of a camp of an insurgent group, resulting in arrests of kidnappers, bandits and cultists.

The herder-farmers conflicts have taken new dangerous dimension to the extent that the clashes have become frequent, culminating into killings, maiming, and in some cases burning of houses and invasion of communities. Residents have reportedly fled their homes due to the attacks. Kogi state also witnessed cult violence, related to rivalry between different cult groups, often escalating into reprisal attacks. During #EndSars protests, casualties were reported when protesters were attacked by political thugs using cutlasses and machetes. These political thugs were reportedly loyal to the government and backed by the police. Incidents of abductions have also been reported in Kogi state.

During 2020, ACLED reported a total of 37 security incidents (4 battles, 27 cases of violence against civilians, 6 incidents of riots) in Kogi state (average of 0.7 security incidents per week). Security incidents took place in 14 out of 21 LGAs, with the largest overall number (9) being recorded in the LGA of Lokoja.

The abovementioned security incidents resulted in 57 deaths. Compared to the estimated population in the state, this represents approximately 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants.

From 1 January to 30 April 2021, ACLED reported a total of 9 security incidents (1 battle, 6 cases of violence against civilians, 2 incidents of riots) in Kogi state (average of 0.5 security incidents per week). These security incidents resulted in 2 deaths.

IOM-DTM data showed that 87 % of the IDPs in North-West and North-Central regions were displaced within their state of origin, 13 % were displaced from a different state. As of January 2021, 309 231 IDPs were registered in North-Central region. Information on the number of conflict-related IDPs and on the number of returnees in Kogi state could not be found.  

Kogi state suffers from a spate of kidnapping and armed robbery on its highways.


Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the state of Kogi there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.
Main COI reference: Security situation 2021, 2.16