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Last updated: June 2022

Besides the actors mentioned above, the family or family/clan members can be actors of persecution or serious harm, such as in the case of domestic violence, violence against LGBTIQ persons, forced and child marriage, female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C), etc. FGM/C practitioners, including traditional circumcisers and health care professionals, are another potential example of non-State actors of persecution or serious harm. See, for example, the profiles 2.10 LGBTIQ persons, 2.11 Women and girls, etc.

Human rights violations, which could amount to persecution or serious harm, are also committed by other non-State actors, such as criminal groups.

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For further information on human rights violations committed by FGS forces and their relevance as potential exclusion grounds, see chapter Exclusion.