Last updated: June 2022
[Targeting, 1.1, 5.2]
In clan conflicts that revolve around access to water, grazing or land, women are still often considered sacrosanct and they are not directly targeted. If, however, majority groups clash with minority groups, it is more likely that women are harmed by majority clan militias, as a display of superiority by the majority group. Furthermore, younger militiamen often do not respect traditional rules of conflict and target women, children and elders or use violence indiscriminately.
Additionally, women can play a very specific role in peace-making between lineages of clans. In order to stabilise a peace agreement between groups, sometimes one or several unmarried girls from the family of the killer(s) are given by the elders for marriage to the injured group, on top of the compensation in livestock or the equivalent in money. This tradition is called godob reeb, which translates as ‘extinguishing hatred/resentment’.
Women and girls in clan conflicts could be exposed to acts which are of such severe nature that they would amount to persecution (e.g. certain forms of physical harm). In relation to the tradition of gobod reeb, forced and child marriage would amount to persecution. See also sub-profile 2.11.3 Child marriage and forced marriage.
Not all women and girls would face the level of risk required to establish well-founded fear of persecution in relation to clan conflicts. The individual assessment of whether there is a reasonable degree of likelihood for the applicant to face persecution should take into account risk-impacting circumstances, such as: belonging to a minority clan, family/clan traditions, etc.
Nexus to a reason for persecution
Available information indicates that persecution of this profile may be for reasons of race and/or membership of a particular social group (especially in relation to some minority groups, see more information under profile 2.9 Minorities).