Last updated: June 2022
The situation in Awdal should be seen in light of the situation in the (neighbouring) regions of Wogoyi Galbeed and Togdheer.
General information about the region
Awdal region consists of four districts and its capital is Borama.
Awdal is inhabited by the Dir clans, Gadabursi and Issa, with the regional capital Borama at the centre of the Gadabursi territory.
In 2014, UNFPA and Somali authorities estimated the population of Sanaag region at 673 263 inhabitants.
Background and actors involved in armed confrontations
Somaliland forces control most of Somaliland territory (middle and western part).
Al-Shabaab maintains a quiet network in Somaliland, mainly for purposes of finances and recruitment.
A combination of informal and formal intelligence gathering capabilities and networks by the Somaliland authorities, have been described as keys to their success against Al-Shabaab, so far.
Furthermore, the presence of clan militias in Awdal region has been reported.
Nature of violence
Clashes between clan militias and Somaliland forces have been reported, mainly in the context of disputed land ownership.
On September 2020, a Somali news website reported a bomb attack at the Somaliland Ministry of Finance compound in Boroma that injured one employee. This incident could not be corroborated by other sources.
Among others, security incidents related to clan conflicts do not always receive local media attention and hence might go under-reported in Somalia.
ACLED recorded 4 security incidents (an average of 0.1 security incidents per week) in Awdal region between 1 January 2020 and 30 June 2021, ranking the region the lowest in terms of security incidents. All 4 of the recorded incidents were coded as battles.
All recorded security incidents occurred in Borama district.
Fatalities among civilians and non-civilians
In the reference period, ACLED recorded a total of 1 fatality in the region. Compared to the figures for the population in the region as from 2014, this represents less than 1 fatality per 100 000 inhabitants.
Between January 2020 and May 2021, PRMN reported 11 000 new displacements from Awdal, with almost all being within the region. In this period, conflict and insecurity led to the displacement of 10 cases. In 2020, additional 14 displacements to Awdal were registered from Sanaag and Nugal.
Further impact of the armed conflict(s) on the life of civilians
In 2020, Somaliland authorities issued directives imposing conditions on humanitarian aid organizations, thereby potentially hampering humanitarian operations. For Awdal region, three incidents of humanitarian workers being unable to access sites were reported in 2020.
The presence of entry and exit checkpoints at each district within Somaliland has been reported [Socio-economic 2021, 22.214.171.124].
Gang rape and other forms of gender-based violence were reported to remain a problem in urban areas of Somaliland, often occurring in impoverished neighbourhoods and among immigrants, returnees and IDPs.
Looking at the indicators, it can be concluded that in the region of Awdal there is, in general, no real risk for a civilian to be personally affected within the meaning of Article 15(c) QD.